Correct Option: C
Rousseau’s most important work is The Social Contract, which outlines the basis for a legitimate political order within a framework of classical republicanism. Published in 1762, it became one of the most influential works of political philosophy in the Western tradition. It developed some of the ideas mentioned in an earlier work, the article Economie Politique (Discourse on Political Economy), featured in Diderot’s Encyclopedie. The treatise begins with the dramatic opening lines, “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. Those who think themselves the masters of others are indeed greater slaves than they.”
Correct Option: B
The most central concept in Locke’s political philosophy is his theory of natural law and natural rights. John Locke emphasized “life (everyone is entitled to live once they are created), liberty (everyone is entitled to do anything they want to so long as it doesn’t conflict with the first right) and property (everyone is entitled to own all they create or gain through gift or trade so long as it doesn’t conflict with the first two rights)” as primary natural rights. In his theory, the social contract is an agreement between members of a country to live within a shared system of laws. Specific forms of government are the result of the decisions made by these persons acting in their collective capacity. Government is instituted to make laws that protect these three natural rights. If a government does not properly protect these rights, it can be overthrown.
Correct Option: D
The organization was founded in Belgrade in 1961, and was largely the brainchild of Yugoslavia’s president, Josip Broz Tito; Indonesia’s first president, Sukarno; Egypt’s second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser; Ghana’s first president Kwame Nkrumah; and India’s first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. All five leaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states in the Developing World between the Western and Eastern blocs in the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat and statesman V.K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations.
Correct Option: A
The Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, built of concrete and stone. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian’s reign (81–96). The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Born in about 570 A.D, in the Arabian city of Mecca, Prophet Muhammad was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. Peter the Great ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May, 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother.